Overcome Drug Addiction With Proper Treatment

People are facing several problems in life and to overcome it they prefer drugs. Drug act as a medicine for curing diseases, but using beyond the limit will cause severe problem to health and even cause death. Illegal use of drugs will create problems to your body as well as damage your brain. Drug addict is one among the social problem and to overcome it rehab centers is the best choice. You can stay there and continue your treatment or you can visit there as out-patient for proceeding treatment; based on your interest, you can prefer it. People hesitate to consult rehab centers for treatment, since they fear that they will torture them during treatment period, but all their myth is false. Rehab centers offer friendly treatment to overcome drug addict and helps you in building self confident. Once you undergone drug addiction rehab in rehab centers, you will feel amazing changes in your body. If your loves ones are addicted to drugs, don’t hesitate to consult rehab centers, because they will offer better treatment to overcome it in quick time. Moreover, treatment plan is simpler, so you won’t feel hard to follow it.

Overcome It Without Struggle

In rehab centers treatment offered to all drug addicts are not similar and they are tailor made based on the individuals. You will gain successful result after completion of your treatment. Person consuming drugs will result in change in behaviors and this is due to damage caused to brain. You can’t judge or predict the activities of individual consuming drugs, so it’s better to consult rehab center and treat them. Drug addiction will overcome easily, if they prefer proper treatment. You can also attend program in order to overcome drug addict. Drug addict will create problem not only for his/her own, but also for others. Recovering from drug addiction is not a tougher task nowadays, due to availability of alcohol addiction rehab centers in more numbers, although advanced treatment is also introduced. After treatment, you will get relief from drugs for long lasting period as well as your lifestyle will also get changed. If your loved ones suffering from drug addiction, make use of treatment.

How PhenQ fat burner works better in reducing your weight

Today, a lot of people have a habit of eating fast foods and junk foods which may contain highest concentration of fat. By eating these types of fatty foods, most of them are getting obesity problems and several other health issues. Obesity is definitely a quite irritating for everyone because it will give you so much of health issues and completely reduce your appearance. With the obesity problems, many men and women are searching for the best way to reduce their body weight. Now days, you can find so much of weight loss pills available in the market. Phenq is the most popular fat burner and weight loss pills providing effective benefits in losing your weight.

Don’t go for the some other diet pills because they might be fraud and will not provide you effective weight loss benefits. The phenq pill is one and only recommended for your fat burning benefits because it is proven to be safe for all. A lot of medical and scientific studies have proven that phenq is surely an effective pill to lose your weight and burning fat. According to the online Phenq Reviews posted by the users, it provides quick and effective weight loss results with no side effects. The effectual fat boosting and safe ingredients used in this phenq pills are,

  • Nopal
  • Caffeine
  • Chromium Picolinate
  • Capsimax powder
  • A-Lacys reset
  • L-Carnatine Furmarate
  • Calcium carbonate

These ingredients are completely safe and efficient in burning fat and removing all harmful toxins from the human body. Thus, you will get fast and effective weight loss benefits with no any other side effects. Every ingredient used in this pill has been certified as the safe for the human consumption to lose weight and burn fat.

All About Retail Medicine

Have you ever wondered why malls are so successful especially around the Christmastime? The answer is, malls come as a blessing if you need several items as they offer an assortment of varied type of items all under one roof. The mall idea has been largely taken by the hospitals who offers convenience to clientele through retail within the hospital itself. This is indeed the secret of the successful concept of retail medicine. And, in recent tight economic times, when hospitals are faced with the challenge of increasing revenue retail medicine has offered them with the desired O2 in order to survive.

The typical concept of retail medicine ideally refers to the health care related products which are usually offered by the hospital, which are not covered by insurance. Reports unveil that the, “average hospital makes $500,000 annually from retail such as gift and coffee shops, but has the potential of $5 million to $15 million annually with the extended retail medicine. The return on investment is higher in retail than in reimbursed health care, with 15 percent to 20 percent returns in retail, compared with 2 percent to 3 percent return in

Here is the list of the different types of retail reimbursed health care.”

Due to this ever growing numbers now several hospitals are catching on the concept of retail medicine.

Services in healthcare settings:
o catering services
o retail clinics
o optical and contact lenses stores
o dental and orthodontic services
o hearing services
o pharmacy and supplement needs
o healthy food markets
o prosthetics services
o specialty cancer shops
o new mom shops
o cosmetic surgery centers
o health library and book stores and many more…

The retail healthcare industry is nowadays being estimated at$500 billion in revenues and is also projected to reach at $1 trillion dollars. The retail healthcare industry has an immense future and is expected to grow further. Here comes the million dollar question “what should we be asking as you put together a hospital retail strategy?” The answer is a razor-sharp concentration on the consumer. The marketing department for the retail healthcare should focus on every detail from store design to convenient placement of the stores within the hospital to add value to your consumers.

You Are How You Move – Experiential Chi Kung by Ged Sumner

“You Are How You Move: Experiential Chi Kung” by Ged Sumner is a good basic text for those new to qigong or chi kung and want to learn a little about this practice and become more in touch with their body. I think the key aspect of this book is that it gets the reader thinking about the importance of body alignment and breathing. There are much more complete texts on qigong and chi kung, but this book is still a great place for beginners and a nice addition to your health library.

The author begins by asking, “what is exercise?” He then shares some basics for good health. One must remember that there are various ways to exercise depending on your goals. The goal here is to combat the sedentary lifestyle and increase health, not to compete in athletic competitions or maximize human performance. (However, simple qigong or chi kung exercises certainly can be incorporated into even the most strenuous athletic training regimens with positive productive results.

The sections of the book that encourage the reader to become more in tune with your own body and to breath more offer very good advice. Even a little time getting to know your body better is more than many people ever do. The actual exercises taught in the book may be difficult for the beginner to fully understand. Where there are photographs, sometimes I don’t know if they are enough for everyone. I have trained in qigong while living in Korea, and in the U.S. so it was easier for me to fill in the blanks between pictures than it may be for some. For most people, if this book interests them in the benefits of qigong or chi kung, they will seek out an instructor, different texts, and DVDs, so this will only be one of many resources to learn from, and it is a good one to have as a resource. Even if all you do is get to know your body a bit better and change some of your breathing habits the book will be well worth it.

The final chapters share a little bit on the common chi meditations that you may want to learn more about and brief descriptions of some chi kung applications such as arthritis, low energy, and impotence.

The book is less than 200 pages with quite a few photographs, so it is a fairly quick read. If you are looking for an introduction to chi kung, this book is not a bad place to start. If you just want to get more in tune with your own body, “You Are How You Move” will help you do just that! (That is if you actually follow the exercises and advice Sumner encourages you to).

Parents With Personality Disorders AKA: Growing Up With Crazy

How would you know if you were the only sane person in an insane asylum? Now imagine yourself as a child with no prior knowledge of what is sane or normal. How would a child know if they were a sane person in a family with disturbed parents?

A significant part of the trauma of growing up in an abusive environment is that children do not understand what is happening to them or why. They understand that life feels unfair, but they don’t understand why things are so terribly wrong. And because children rely on their parents for understanding and survival, it is far more terrifying to think that the adults around them are unsafe or evil than to think that they must be bad or evil themselves.

That said, there is a significant difference between parents who are sometimes moody, depressed, anxious or inattentive from parents who have enduring emotional problems and a history of behavioral and relationship difficulties. The former are well intentioned but challenged parents who may even have a mild mood disorder, the latter are adults with Axis II Personality Disorders. Axis II or Cluster B Personality Disorders include Borderline P.D., Narcissistic P.D., Antisocial P.D., and Histrionic P.D.

“Personality Disorders are present in 10 to 15 percent of the adult population, with Cluster B accounting for approximately 9 percent based on research.” (Counseling Resource, Mental Health Library, pg.1). So we are not talking about some minute substrata of the adult population; several million families could be affected. And yet, there is no common denominator that distinguishes a family with a parent who has a Personality Disorder. If there was, we might be able to help children who grow up in this kind of environment. The reality is that the child doesn’t understand what is happening, and while the outside world might recognize that one or both of the parents are emotionally unstable, there is no legal way to make the leap that a child in the house is being emotionally abused and is unsafe, and then help them.

About the only thing we can do as clinicians or concerned citizens is familiarize ourselves and others with what Cluster B Personality Disorders look like and how they can negatively impact children. Then if we suspect that abuse is happening, we can try and alert other family members, school personnel or anyone who might have some influence to go in and help – through empathy and education – so that the family become more self-aware.

The most serious of the Cluster B Personality Disorders is Borderline Personality Disorder. In the case of a parent (more likely mom than dad) with this disorder, there is persistent instability in their relationships with just about everyone as well as persistent impulsive behavior, addictive behavior, and self-harming behavior. Borderlines have no personal boundaries so they don’t respect other peoples’ boundaries. Children of Borderlines are always at risk because they are both neglected and overwhelmed by their parents’ behavior. They may be verbally, physically or sexually assaulted – either by the parent, or by the types of people that the parent exposes them to. There is no consistency, no sound role modeling, very little if any nurturing, and they are in a constant state of high alert, because they never know what will happen next. So these kids grow up with low self-esteem, lots of internalized trauma, and repressed anger that affects their ability to function effectively in the world.

Narcissistic Personality Disorder may be most common of the Cluster B group – and in some ways the hardest to identify and therefore help the child. Narcissists are clever. They are great manipulators. They can turn on the charm when they need or want to. But there is always a self-serving goal. They are like the plant in “The Little Shop of Horrors” – their egos need to be fed constantly. Their children are either viewed as an extension of themselves or a punching bag for their own unrecognized insecurities and self-loathing. Narcissists are bullies. It’s their way or the highway. They have no empathy for anyone – including their children. In fact, they have been called “emotional vampires”, because they use up everyone around them. Their vanity is boundless.
While narcissistic parents can maintain long-term relationships, they usually pair up with enabling partners. So the child has no one to turn to. And the child is made to believe that they are the problem; they are selfish, bad children because they don’t appreciate and take care of their narcissistic parent adequately. Again, these are the hardest type of family situations to recognize and intercede. But it is very helpful to the child to know that there are people outside of the home who recognize their reality. That alone, might present a window of clarity to a bewildered child, and therefore hope.

Histrionic Personality Disorder is less pervasive than Narcissistic but shares many behavioral patterns. Like the narcissist, the histrionic personality seeks constant admiration, has no empathy for others and is consumed with entitlement, envy, and jealousy. What is specific to the Histrionic is a pervasive pattern of attention seeking, excessive emotional liability coupled with lots of drama. Their feelings are shallow, their behavior seductive and extremely manipulative. Their children, like everyone else in their world, are there to serve, comfort and fulfill them. And they vacillate between engulfing their children and neglecting them. Either way, the child’s needs are not considered. Because they feel used and unseen, the emotional toll of being raised by a Narcissist or Histrionic can leave these children with intimacy issues, anger, anxiety and lack of trust.

While Antisocial Personality Disorder is more obvious and identifiable to the outside world, it doesn’t make it any easier to help the child of such a parent. These parents are usually irresponsible and have a total disregard for the rights of others. Their behavior can fall into criminal patterns because they tend to ignore the rules of society. And they show no remorse for their behavior. So they don’t only mistreat their children, they mistreat everyone. Sometimes the extremity of their behavior leads to the loss of parental rights. That can actually be the child’s salvation. Because a child brought up in that type of environment is not only scarred by the mistreatment they receive, they are not given any proper tools to navigate society later, so the only hope for them to learn right from wrong and also healthier ways to interact, is to be taken away at a young enough age and put into a more caring environment.

We may not yet have the laws and social constructs in place to help the children of parents with Personality Disorders, but we can become more vigilant and responsible. It is our business to help those who cannot help themselves. It is not a private matter. It is a social responsibility.

Problems In Managing Government Publications In Academic Libraries In Sierra Leone

INTRODUCTION

In Sierra Leone the terms ‘official publications’, official documents’, and ‘public documents’ are synonymous with government publications. Government publications, simply put, are documents created by government and local and quasi-government bodies explaining and integrating views and polices. They represent the historical and current development authorities of government and provide data on a wide variety of subjects to include Political Science, Economics, Finance, Statistics, Labor, Industry, History, International Relations, Agriculture, Geology and Meteorology. Katz (1997) classed these publications into: (1) records of government administration (2).research documents for specialists including a considerable number of statistics and data of value to science and business (3).popular sources of information. Their physical form being either a book, pamphlet, magazine, report monograph or electronic, especially CD-ROM (p.387).

Bibliographic control in many parts of the world is seemingly unsatisfactory due largely to lack of awareness of the importance of bibliographic tools in research in government publications. The United States of America, for example, was for a long time a pioneer in this field. As far back as 1895 the Printing Act of January 12 of that year (28 statute, 601-624) not only established centralized printing and distribution of federal documents but also instructed the Superintendent of Documents to provide appropriate tools for bibliographic control of the documents published. Great Britain is an outstanding exception for as far back as 1807 collections of parliamentary papers were printed. Countries such as Sweden, Italy, Netherlands, Germany and Japan began separating government document bibliographies mainly in the 1920s and 1930s (Palic,1975). However a great need for the use of government publications was felt following World War 11 (1939-1945), when there was an increased interest in the authoritative information contained in such publications as posited by child’s (1942) in his introductory notes that ‘more and more the importance of government documentation is being recognized despite the refractory nature of some of these materials’

In parallel the emphasis made on the usefulness of government publications in Sierra Leone is associated with the development of printing which can be traced as far back as the founding of the Colony of Sierra Leone in 1787. Although the industry didn’t survive the French attack of 1794 the foundation stone of what later became known as the Government Printing Department was laid in 1925 when it was charged with the production of small notices for official use. Currently the Department prints all government publications and supplies stationery and office equipment of government departments. It also undertakes a fair amount of commercial printing as income generating measures.

Government publications usually have the advantage of being among the best in their subject fields often not easily available to others (Smith, 1993). In lieu of the extent and complexity of government activities there is a need for the widespread dissemination of information about these activities and for popular integration of government policy. No wonder why government publications have special value to academic library collections and their authority is permanent. In academic libraries in Sierra Leone these publications are put aside into a special collection manned by a curator as at Fourah Bay College Library. Some are kept in vertical files; others are placed in pamphlet boxes, while those like maps and surveys are given specialized storage. These publications are acquired mainly by purchase, deposit, donation, exchange and photocopying. The Government Printing Department is responsible for their publication

DIVISIONS OF GOVERNMENT AND THEIR PUBLICATIONS

The expansion of government in Sierra Leone’s post-war reconstruction era at local, national and international levels has resulted in increasing her influence on the life of the citizenry. Simultaneously with this expansion is the proliferation of official and semi official agencies, commissions and bureaus which continue to publish works such as directories, regulations, reports, bills, Acts and technical literature which many a researchers, educators, public service functionaries, welfare recipients and the unemployed can not do without reference to such publications. Since librarians serve as interface between users and government they have for long recognized the problems which such a plethora of collection can pose and have been making tremendous strides to address the issue. The essence here is to provide systematic controls to avoid the disappearance, into oblivion, of essential official publications.

In Sierra Leone government publications fall within three general classes: Executive, Legislative ands Judicial. The Executive publications include those issued by the Offices of the President and the Vice President, and various independent offices and establishments such as National Commission for Social Action (NaCSA), National Revenue Authority (NRA), Anti Corruption Commission (ACC), National Commission for Privatization (NCP) and the Office of the Ombudsman. Also included are government ministries such as the Ministries of defense; Education, Youth and Sports; Foreign Affairs and International Co-operation; Tourism and Cultural Affairs; Local Government and Community Development; Agriculture, Forestry and Food Security; Trade and Industry; Internal Affairs; labor and Industrial Relations; and Development and Economic Planning.

The Ministry of Trade and Industry, for example, is responsible for both internal and international trade and the promotion of exports. It has powers over customs and excise, tariffs, insurance, patents, trademarks, standards, weights and measures. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation is responsible for Sierra Leone’s relationship with foreign and Commonwealth countries while the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food Security is responsible for administrating government policy on agriculture, horticulture and food security. This Ministry offers practical guidance to farmers, commercial producers of horticultural crops and research.The Ministry of Internal Affairs deals with the maintenance of law and order, the Police and Fire Forces, administration of the prisons and the treatment of offenders. Other miscellaneous matters dealt with by this ministry include explosives, firearms, dangerous drugs, prisons, shops, public safety, entertainment, cremation, bylaws and good rule and formal business. The aforementioned functions and similar ones carried out by other ministries require the creation and maintenance of publications. There is also documentation of press briefings given by the varied heads of ministries and newsletters, which are channels for respective ministries there-by making them more public-relations conscious.

Legislative publications include the records and debates of Parliament and the reports of hearings of the varied Parliamentary Committees. Included here also are multiple policy statements in reply to parliamentary questions. The Hansard is another rich source for public matters as it provides official information and views about parliamentary debates.

Publications from the Judiciary branch of government consist mostly of reports of government decisions by the Magistrate, Appeals and Supreme Courts. Found in this arm of government are law books, ‘annual registers’, state trials and rulings, the constitution, international treaties, protocols, peace accords, Acts, bills and digests of local newspapers. These publications provide the judiciary with pertinent information on multifarious legal matters. Such information is required to be factual and politically impartial.

The City and District Councils, being quasi-government institutions, provide documents classified as government publications. These include building codes, educational development, health and sanitation, regulations on waste disposal, use of firearms and fire machines. Also there are government departments which provide statistical information on a vast range of economic, industrial and social demographic data. Of central importance are Statistics Sierra Leone (formerly Central Statistics Office-CSO), responsible for national population census and home surveys; the Office of Births and Deaths which registers and produces annual statistics of births and deaths in the country; the Office of the Registrar General responsible for statutory registration of marriages, patents and trademarks; the Chamber of Commerce which specializes on business information. These offices bring together important economic and social statistics supplied by government departments. Other important government departments are the Meteorological Office, which continues to give pertinent weather information, and the National Archives, which serves as repository of all non-current government publications inclusive of national newspapers. The afore-mentioned government publications vary in size and length. Written by experts in the subject, government publications are not only authoritative but also timely published and deal with topics of current interest. Their purpose, according to Katz (1969), is to provide information and answer questions and not to provoke discussion or organizational cataloging and administration. They are useful primary reference sources.

ACADEMIC LIBRARIES IN SIERRA LEONE

Academic libraries in Sierra Leone are those in the constituent units that form the country’s two universities, namely the University of Sierra Leone and the University of Njala. These libraries represent the bibliographic foundation of the nation’s research interest. They participate actively in the distribution and exchange of book and non-book materials to sister institutions all over the country. Collectively these institutions serve students, faculty, scholars and researchers that are engaged in work in the sciences and humanities as well as the general public. These libraries have combined resources of over 500,000 volumes, most of which are of unique scope and quality. Included in these massive collections are government publications such as treaties, Acts, statistical tables and compilations, conventions and records of diplomatic relations, reports of government departments, committees, bureau and commissions, census schedules, proclamations and laws. The maintenance, preservation and development of these publications are responsibilities shared by academic librarians as their libraries continue to serve as national resources.

JUSTIFICATION FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS IN ACADEMIC LIBRARIES

Varied reasons have been advanced for the inclusion of government publications in academic libraries in Sierra Leone. The purposes of the country’s universities are teaching, service, research and interpretation and dissemination of research. Society views government as a reliable and impartial source of authoritative information that should be accessible to its citizens through its numerous publications. Since academic institutions deal with students who in turn will be future citizens these should be informed accordingly. Government’s stance should be known when there is public discussion on health, international relations, education, agriculture, social security and trade, to cite a few examples. Thus the need for the development of government publications in academic libraries as such materials could speak for the government in varied activities. Further academic libraries have the objectives of preservation, conservation and service. And government publications form part of society’s cultural heritage which need conservation and preservation not only for research purposes but also for posterity as tangible primary sources of information which academics can constantly refer to. Little wonder why as a measure of bibliographic control of these publications librarians continue to provide catalog’s, checklists, guides, indexes, accessions lists and selected general bibliographies containing substantial information on government publications.

1991-2001 was a period of doom in Sierra Leone as it marked the civil war. Fought as a result of bad governance, nepotism and massive corruption it led to the un-wanton destruction of lives and properties. Essential government buildings0 destroyed to reckless abandon included the National Treasury, Sierra Leone Police premises, law courts and the offices of the Freetown City Council all of which housed important documents constantly consulted by researchers, government functionaries and the public. Not withstanding the country is gradually recovering with the re-establishment of local government, multi-party democracy, improved human, women and child rights, the provision of a conducive atmosphere to investment, and a new system of education (6-3-3-4), to cite but a few developments, the effective operation of which requires constant use of government publications.

The broad programs in academic institutions include many areas of life with the teaching of historical and geographic concepts; scientific studies are undertaken for improved health and food security; international relations and inter-religious understanding are fostered. Also modern community life and the philosophy of democracy, peace and conflict resolution, good governance, human rights and other ideologies are taught in order that intelligent decisions could be drawn. These designed educational programs bring enrichment and information to students in such fields as economics, government, health and sanitation, agriculture, international relations, human rights and diplomacy. In support of these varied disciplines academic libraries provide huge collections to include local materials some of which are in the form of government publications whereby students, faculty and researches could share their experiences and interests and develop satisfactory personal adjustment with regard varied government functionaries in society. By so doing students are provided the opportunity to grow in social usefulness and develop their intellectual interests and capabilities in order to become responsible members of society. This in turn could help promote nationalism. In lieu of these factors academic libraries attempt to provide liberal collections to include books, serial publications, audio-visuals and government publications.

PROBLEMS

Government publications are among the most useful materials in academic libraries in Sierra Leone. Apart from the public library, the national archives and parliament library which serve as repositories for such publications academic libraries continue to develop these publications in their huge collection. However such moves are not bereft of problems. These range from poor formats through lack of trade bibliographies to unsatisfactory methods of distribution. The basic problem to all these libraries is the volume of publications received, much of which is nothing but raw data and statistics used to support arguments or gathered more for the sake of gathering rather than for any specific reasons. Since these libraries have limited space to house their numerous collections the continued acquisition of government publications poses problems to staff.

Academic libraries acquire government publications mainly by donations although a few are acquired by purchase, exchange and photocopy. Once these materials are received they are expected to be processed and organized for use in the library. Sadly there has been no fixed pattern in classifying and organizing these materials in these libraries. Their organization is either by government ministry/department, subject or format which is often confusing to users. At Fourah Bay College library, for example, these publications are placed separately from the general collection which often constrains users in having to leave their reading area to consult these materials with limited sitting accommodation. Libraries at Njala University College, Institute of Public Administration and Management (IPAM) and the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences (COMHAS), which are relatively small in size integrate the publications in their general collection thereby posing retrieval problems to users.

Keeping track of government publications is another problem as there are no trade bibliographies printed out to help trace them. Hardly are these publications mentioned in the national bibliography, Sierra Leone Publications, prepared by the public/national library. Besides the Government Printing Department responsible for the production of government publications does not have any comprehensive lists of its publications. Most times these publications are either returned immediately to the respective ministries/departments owning them upon completion or sent to the Government Bookshop for sale or sold by the Government Printing Department upon completion, thus making it difficult to locate retrospective publications. Worse still both the Government Printing Department and the Government Bookshop are not interested in publicizing these publications and as such many customers including academic librarians are not aware of the availability of relevant government publications for acquisition thus causing lapses in the development of these materials in academic libraries. In parallel one would expect academic libraries to compile comprehensive lists of such publications but this has not been the case due to the limited number of staff manning this collection and the quantum of work they have to perform especially during peak periods when libraries are heavily used which is time consuming.

There are also problems of collection development. Academic libraries are under-funded and therefore librarians prioritize their collection development needs. Purchasing government publications has not been a priority for academic librarians as they always look forward to the Government Printing Department for donations which are frequently not forthcoming. Hence many relevant government publications are not found in academic library collections. What is more this limited collection is grossly misused and abused by users (especially undergraduate student users) in their academic pursuits. Thus most of these publications have dingy covers; others have a couple of pages either written on or pilfered while some are intentionally mis-shelved to deprive colleagues of using them.

CONCLUSION

The incorporation of government publications in the mainstream of academic library services should be considered a priority by university authorities and academic librarians in providing access to government-produced information in Sierra Leone. Representing a significant and integral part of the national resources government publications are major sources of information in practically every field of endeavor and are crucial to informed public-decision making. Academic librarians should therefore review their collection development strategies and processing and organization methods of these materials if they are to be persistently used by their numerous clientele. Especial thought should be given to increased funding, resource sharing, compilation of lists and adequate staffing, sitting accommodation and storage space if they are to maintain standards in serving their numerous clientele.

AUTHOR NOTE

John Abdul Kargbo is Senior Lecturer at the Institute of Library, Information & Communication Studies at Fourah Bay College, University of Sierra Leone. Mail can be sent to him on

REFERENCES
CHILDS, James B. (1942).Government document bibliography in the U S and elsewhere. 3rd.ed. Washington, D C : Government Printing Office

KATZ, William A.(1969). Introduction to reference work, vol.1 : basic information sources. 2nd. ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

________________ (1997). Introduction to reference work Vol. 1 : basic information sources . 7th.ed. New York :McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Palic, Vladimir M.(1975).Government publications : a guide to bibliographic tools.4th.ed. Washington, DC: Library of Congress.

SMITH, D.H. (1993). Management of government document collections. London : Neal-Schuman

Are Old Books Bad For Your Health? Comment on Mold Spores and Dust Mice in the Lungs

The other day, I was in a used bookstore which was going out of business in our local area. The whole thought of that completely bothered me, nevertheless, everything was on sale so I wanted to see if there was anything that I needed. They had a section with some very old books in one of the corners. I pulled out a book I wished to buy, but the pages had turned brownish, and the acid paper was decaying. I opened up the book and I sneezed. Apparently it had dust mice.

I thought to myself “that’s unfortunate, and I don’t need dust mice in my own home or my own personal library,” and that portion of the used bookstore did smell musty, perhaps there were mold spores in the walls. Nevertheless, that got me thinking about how so many wealthy individuals in past periods have had emphysema, and other lung problems who had also had large libraries in their own mansions or homes. Could it be that all these old books over time as they decay caused dust particles and mold spores to get into people’s lungs?

If that’s the case then old libraries not kept at the proper temperatures could be dangerous for your health. Maybe we don’t have to worry about this, because the age of electronic books is now upon us. I often feel as if my home library is becoming more like a museum of artifacts. I’ve always thought that owning a personal library was of supreme value to one’s quest for a lifetime of learning, constantly improving one’s intellect and understanding of the life experience of the world we live in, however perhaps it is unsafe, health wise.

There are tiny organisms that feed off of wood, and therefore probably paper as well, that’s what books are made at of, and just as some hotels have bedbugs, it may not take long for one book in one’s library filled with tiny organisms to multiply, and advance to similar ecosystems along that bookshelf. You see my point? That’s a scary thought isn’t it?

There is not a lot of information on this as a look through the Internet, but there is a good chance that having too many old books might actually be bad for your health. And if you die early from some type of lung problem, you do realize you can’t take that knowledge with you. That’s all I’m saying here, but then again it may not matter because in the near future there won’t be any physical books.

Everything our next generation has to read will be an e-book, and you won’t have hundreds or thousands of titles in your personal library, you could easily have hundreds of thousands, and be connected to the Internet and trillions of pages of information all the same time. Please consider all this and think on it.

Lance Winslow is the Founder of the Online Think Tank, a diverse group of achievers, experts, innovators, entrepreneurs, thinkers, futurists, academics, dreamers, leaders, and general all around brilliant minds. Lance Winslow hopes you’ve enjoyed today’s discussion and topic. http://www.WorldThinkTank.net – Have an important subject to discuss, contact Lance Winslow.

In-Depth Exploration of Modern Library System of the University Of Louisville

The University of Louisville has a very advanced library system that has been branched out into 5 different repositories for the Art, Music, Health Sciences, and Law. While the hours of operation might vary each month the libraries are regularly giving out information online so that you can stay updated.

The Art Library has a lot of collections digital and in printed form so that you can make the best use of what’s out there in the art world. As an art student it is very important to learn history and understand what is your unique style by constant learning and exploration. The Art Library is stocked with thousands of books, collections, artist’ books, DVDs and Videos related to the field.

Some of the collections you can find at the Ekstrom Library are the African-American Collection, Sign Language videos, Bingham Poetry Collection, Current Periodicals, African Cinema, Oral History, Map Collections and many more. This library is also stocked with digitized collections, images, videos and multimedia to make your learning a much richer experience.

In case you are pursuing medical sciences then you should visit the Kornhauser Health Sciences Library. Library hours are from 7.30 am to 6 pm Mondays through Fridays. In case you wish to return books on weekends it opens at 10 am and closes at 6 pm. You will need to access the Minerva Catalog to understand the depth of collections and how you can best use the library as a resource.

There is a lot in store if you are a student learning music. The Music Library at the University is a treasure trove of things you can learn. You have the Grawemeyer Contemporary Music Collection, Sheet music collections and Jean Thomas Collection to help you in your quest.

The law library is to help students pursuing a course at the Louis D. Brandeis Law School. Here you will find the latest journals and law magazines to help you keep abreast with the latest that is happening.

While on Louisville travel [http://www.louisville-hotels-kentucky.com], touring the library of Louisville University [http://www.louisville-hotels-kentucky.com/hotels-travel/louisville-university.html] will be a never-fading experience for you not only for its unique architectural plan but for other inexpressible qualities.

Benefits of Online Libraries

With the emergence of so many online schools and institutions, people now prefer to study for their degree online. The best part about studying online is that one can study at your convenience and appear for your exams when you feel comfortable. You do not have to attend any college or school but can get all types of study materials online.

Not just acquiring online degree is possible but people can read eBooks and journals as well to acquire more information about any particular subject. There are thousands of libraries online that offer people a complete range of e-Books and journals with comprehensive details. Not every library online has same collection of ebBooks but there are some exclusive ones that can provide you with detailed information about a particular topic or subject.

All you need to do is register yourself with these libraries and get exclusive access to various eBooks, medical e-videos, e-journals and multimedia modules. There are some libraries that let you read e-Books and modules without any fees but they do not have as vast range of subject material as the libraries that charge a membership fees.

The best way to know whether the library has something of your interest is to sign up for a free trial with them. Look out for the libraries that allow access to their books for a limited period of time before you pay them registration fees. This makes sure that your registration money will not go in vain. Once you go through the books and journals you can very easily assume if you wish to register with a particular library or not.

Even if you are studying in a regular college, you need books and study material to study and take your exams. Buying print books can be an expensive affair so online study material can help you wave off your expenditure of buying print books.

By registering yourself with these libraries you can study online and save reduce your expenses. Some libraries offer the option to buy an eBook for only 6 months or 1 year at a reduced price, which is ideal if you are studying for an exam and know that you will only need a book for a few months.

Most of the libraries keep books and journals edited and published by famous authors and popular writers. The best thing about becoming a member with online libraries is that you can find any subject and ebook. Buying print books is not only expensive but after you have appeared for your exams these books are not useful any longer. You either stock them in your store house or give them away. Online books can be kept as long as you want do not take up any space.

With so many advantages of online eBooks over the offline libraries, today people are favoring to register themselves online and enjoy reading great range of books in a minimal registration fees.

8 Reasons to Choose Commercial Library Instead of Open-Source One

Open-source software solutions, including components and libraries, are the preferred choice for many developers who need to solve some particular task or add a feature to the software being developed. Yet commercial libraries can offer more than you can think of.

Open-source software (i.e. software offered under free licenses with freely accessible source code) gains popularity day by day. The reason is obvious – price drops for the end-user software make it harder to invest cash into software development beforehand. And in case of in-house activities stiffer IT budgets make programmers choose code snippets of unidentified quality.

However while open-source libraries and code snippets seem to have zero initial cost of use, they start to consume resources later, during life cycle of your software. And commercial libraries can offer more than you can think of.

I will focus on professionally developed commercial solutions: putting a price tag on your code piece doesn’t magically turns the code into the industry-level commercial product. Commercial library must be evaluated thoroughly to answer the question of how professional it is. Not everything with a price tag is good, that’s obvious. But if it’s commercial, chances are great that you will get the things missing in open-source offerings.

Let’s review what exactly commercial software (and specifically component and class libraries for software developers) can offer, and then discuss objections and counter-objections.

Documentation and samples.

With modern APIs becoming increasingly complex documentation and samples allow easier and faster code reuse. You just copy the piece of code from the sample and it just works. If you need guidance, you can look into documentation to figure out where to go next or why the function could fail.

Adepts of open-source software claim that the source code is the best documentation. Maybe it can work as documentation when the code itself is well-documented, with comments and well-written (with proper formatting and variable and function names). In most cases the code is not the most entertaining reading in the world though.

Various studies show that presence of source code sometimes helps in diagnostics of various issues, but does not help much in use of the software simply because you don’t know what to look for.

Also documentation should be written by technical writers, not programmers – programmers don’t like and don’t know how to write proper documentation. Let programmers do coding and technical writers write text.

Carefully crafted APIs

Any software as a complex engineering product requires design and development before it can be implemented in bare metal in code. Writing 1000 lines of code from scratch is not the same as designing those 1000 lines beforehand and then implementing the design. Proper design can turn 1000 lines of code into 200, and bad design would lead to 10K lines of code that needs to be written.

When it comes to open-source libraries, many of them are developed evolutionary, i.e. something small is created, then features are added like new toys on the new year tree. And in the end you get the construct that is as fragile as a new year tree.

In opposite, commercial APIs are in most cases designed with both ease of use and extensibility in mind. Often there are several levels of APIs in there, for low-level operations (where you get maximum control) and for high-level tasks (where you an get the job done quickly).

Finally, open-source libraries are mainly developed by coders, while professional commercial solutions are usually designed by software architects and analysts, and only then coded by programmers.

Unique features

As the goal of open-source developers is to deliver something and do this fast, usually only the most popular functionality in certain application domain is implemented.

Developers of commercial libraries have to stand out of the crowd and implementing wider scope of functionality is one method to accomplish this task.

The problem of extensibility (i.e. getting a feature that you need) can not be easily solved with open-source other than coding the feature yourself, which is almost always not an option, especially when the issue to be addressed is far from your area of expertise. With commercial software you can negotiate the extension to be made for you or to be included into the future software releases.

The motivation of the commercial vendor is to keep his business running, and this is the effective motivation. For open-source developer even one-time fee you can pay him can be not sufficient to motivate the developer to extend the product (which could have been abandoned long time ago, as it frequently happens in open-source world).

One more benefit of unique features offered by the component vendor is that such features let you create a USP (unique selling point) of the end-user software that you create. And when you do in-house development, those feature let you please the boss and show your attitude towards helping your colleagues and the business itself to act efficiently. In other words, those features show that you care about your user.

Reliability

One of the most valuable assets of every business is trust of its customers. You can’t run a business for a long time when customers don’t trust you. And in software business, where relations are long-term and information flies easily, trust is a must.

When the bug is encountered, it’s the best interest for the commercial vendor to fix it, or trust will be lost. And the customer needs to be assured, that should the issue arise it will be addressed in the shortest possible time.

With open-source libraries, even if you submit a bug (when the developer provided you with such possibility), you usually have little hope for this bug become fixed in any foreseeable future. In opposite, bug fixing is sometimes offered by open-source developers for a fee that far exceeds the cost of the license for comparable commercial product.

Maintenance

IT world is about links and connections between various actors – servers and services, client systems, mobile devices etc. With so many actors, changes and updates are frequent and you have the environment to which your software must adapt all the time. Otherwise you get compatibility problems, dissatisfied and complaining customers and finally business losses.

When you use third-party components in your software, they need to be adapted as well. And as with new features, adaptation of third-party components and libraries is much easier when the author is motivated for this.

Also for the running business maintenance and compatibility updates are one of the ways to inform their users that the business can be relied upon. So there exists a big chance that the required adaptation will be performed by the vendor even without your request.

Expertise

It’s not a secret that you often don’t need a third-party code when you can write this code yourself. That is true for general-purpose code, but can you take the risk doing the same in low-level programming or neural networking, OCR or cryptography?

No person is a specialist in everything, that’s why we have so many different professions and specialists that focus on some one particular question.

Commercial vendors, especially those offering specialized software and components, use services of such narrow specialists to provide high-quality products. The vendor has a specialist in the application domain (eg. in OCR or networking), a specialist in software design and a specialist in programming environments and computer platforms. Cooperation between those specialists lets you get a reliable product. But in case of open-source this is a rare situation. Specialists in application domains most often prefer doing their job for money and spend free time with their families and hobbies. It’s hard (though not impossible) to find a specialist who is a good software architect and programmer at the same time.

As a consequence, with commercial software you usually get a product of the higher quality (not just programming quality but quality of the application domain) than in case of open-source.

Assistance

Initial development of the open-source software is often driven by curiosity, desire for publicity and other similar emotional factors. This works well for a short time, usually enough for initial development, but not for maintenance and especially not for assisting you with the product. In other words, if you need help, you need to search for it anywhere you can… or pay for it to the developers.

As with bug-fixing the cost of such individual assistance services usually exceeds the cost of the license for commercial software. The reason is simple – the business of the commercial vendor is based on insurance model, where total development and support expenses are spread among all licenses sold no matter how much support you “consume” (extra support packages are sometimes offered as well, but the overall scheme is the one described). In case of open-source products the only source to compensate development and support is to charge you for everything possible.

Investment in future

The “save tomorrow for tomorrow, think about today instead” mantra has brought humanity to the edge of ecological catastrophe. Apple’s bias towards end-users (which is just a cloak for desire to sell more hardware) has hut the whole software industry badly. People are used to pay 0 to 1 dollar for software and then ask “what? Do I have to pay another $0.99 for a new version of the software title that I’ve been using for 3 years? Are you insane?”. That attitude poisons the industry and slows down innovation. For some time the race for the first places in the AppStore and Play Store will make developers invest their time and resources into software titles, but calculations and studies show, that this race is more of a lottery with a little chance for small developers to succeed.

Paying for software and motivating the users to pay as well is a culture of consuming the software which will let the ISV industry, and especially small vendors, continue to innovate in future and do this with satisfactory budgets.

Finally, if you don’t pay for books you read, writers will stop writing and there will be no new literature to steal to read. If nobody pays for software now, there will be no skilled vendors in 5-10 years and no good and sophisticated software. Unlike music records, software vendors can’t give software away for free and do something else for living – that’s not a viable business model. So they will simply go out of business, and the world will become full of open-source stuff, unsupported and of unknown quality.

Objections

* There are many open-source titles, which deliver exceptional quality. Yes, there do exist software titles (mainly end-user and server software, rarely libraries) which are open-source and which offer great value. But if you look carefully, most of them are (a) commercial products, just sponsored by big companies or institutions, (b) often free only for non-commercial use but who reads those EULAs, (c) not as great as initially seems, with internal management problems, bloated code and design and implementation flaws that lead to necessity to rewrite the titles from scratch from time to time.

* Open-source is free and nothing can beat such price. Yes, the cheese in the mouse trap is also free. But unlike the mouse trap, free software is a trap for each mouse involved. There are costs involved in maintenance and bug-fixing and in migrating to other solutions later if the chosen open-source stuff suddenly stops working. And such costs can exceed the initial costs of the commercial solution in a several powers, especially if you try to rely business processes on free solutions. Even when you keep using the open-source solution, assistance either needs to be paid or you need to hope that someone in programming community helps you for free (with absolutely no guarantee).

* Open-source offers source code. Yes, and so do most commercial libraries. Commercial end-user software is rarely offered with source code, that’s true, but as mentioned, there’s very little use in such source code (other than to satisfy curiosity).

* Open-source is documented. Yes, with mystifying comments and unreadable and badly formatted code. Wiki and publicly maintained knowledgebases are a weak substitute to professionally written documentation.

* I can ask for samples in the programming community. You can ask but this doesn’t promise you the answer, neither you get a guarantee of the quality of the provided answer. The fact that something works in one particular case doesn’t prove reliability of the solution in real-life conditions.

* Open-source has as much features as commercial software. Yes, the feature list can be the same initially although this needs proof: commercial libraries have to stand out and features are a good method. In any case extensibility of open-source software is lower due to lack of the main driving force for such extensibility and often due to bad design.

* Open-source software has great APIs. Yes, and shamans can sometimes offer good medical services. But it’s a better idea to go to the hospital.

* I can modify the open-source product myself. Yes, and you can do the same with the source code of the commercial library.

* Open-source can also deliver unique features. Yes it can, but only for some time. All easy (and inexpensive) unique features become common quite fast. And really unique features need resources to be implemented.

* Open-source is better tested due to larger audience. “It’s better tested” doesn’t mean better quality. It means only more bugs in the bug tracker. And as bug fixing is generally slower in open-source than in commercial software, the latter one has a better chance to be of higher quality.

* the open-source library I use worked fine for me for years. Yes, in closed environments and in simple tasks the code which has been tested once will work for years and decades. However if this code communicates or interacts with other software and network, changes of external actors can bring your business down in minutes, and when this happens, you will have very little time to react.

* I have very simple tasks where no expertise is needed and where open-source works for me. A match (the one to get the light with) is a trivial thing. Or is it? The components of the match were developed for decades by numerous scientists in chemistry, biology and physics. Things you consider trivial now are the result of years and centuries of scientific research. And in software there are no trivial tasks and no trivial solutions.

* I can get assistance from community, I don’t need a paid service. And you surely ask community for health care, legal services, car repair services etc. But this is not effective and is like playing with fire – one incompetent suggestion can get you into serious trouble. Professional services are a must for any activity of the modern civilization.

Eugene Mayevski takes a post of Chief Technical Officer in EldoS Corporation, the company that specializes in development of security and low-level system components for software developers.